Malaria parasiteP. berghei
TaggedGene model (rodent): PBANKA_0108300; Gene model (P.falciparum): PF3D7_0609800; Gene product: palmitoyltransferase DHHC2, putative (DHHC2)
Name tag: GFP
Phenotype Asexual bloodstage; Gametocyte/Gamete; Fertilization and ookinete; Oocyst; Sporozoite;
Last modified: 5 April 2016, 09:53
Successful modificationThe parasite was generated by the genetic modification
The mutant contains the following genetic modification(s) Gene tagging
Reference (PubMed-PMID number) Reference 1 (PMID number) : 26526684
MR4 number
Parent parasite used to introduce the genetic modification
Rodent Malaria ParasiteP. berghei
Parent strain/lineP. berghei ANKA
Name parent line/clone P. berghei ANKA cl15cy1
Other information parent lineA reference wild type clone from the ANKA strain of P. berghei (PubMed: PMID: 17406255).
The mutant parasite was generated by
Name PI/ResearcherSantos JM; Janse CJ; Mair GR
Name Group/DepartmentInstituto de Medicina Molecular
Name InstituteFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa
Name of the mutant parasite
RMgm numberRMgm-1353
Principal name202cl1m1
Alternative namedhhc2::gfp::3'utr
Standardized name
Is the mutant parasite cloned after genetic modificationYes
Asexual blood stageDHHC2::GFP expression in blood stages
Gametocyte/GameteDHHC2::GFP expression in (female) gametocytes
Fertilization and ookineteDHHC2::GFP expression in ookinetes
OocystDHHC2::GFP expression in (maturing) oocysts
SporozoiteDHHC2::GFP expression in sporozoites
Liver stageNot tested
Additional remarks phenotype

The mutant expresses a C-terminal GFP-tagged version of DHHC2 (the endogenous gene has been tagged with gfp and the transgene is under control of both the 5' and 3'UTR of the dhhc2 gene).

Protein (function)
Many proteins are post-translationally modified by the addition of lipids. Palmitoylation results in the addition of a C-16 fatty acid to a cysteine residue within a given protein. Palmitoylation is reversible and thus can dynamically regulate a protein’s subcellular localization, gene expression and activity.
Blocking palmitoylation in P. falciparum with 2-bromopalmitate (2-BMP) results in a complete failure to develop merozoites during the blood stage of the life cycle. Preventing palmitoylation of proteins through targeted mutagenesis of cysteine residues within the modification target results in the mis-localization of proteins found in the inner membrane complex (IMC).
The palmitoylation reaction is catalysed by TM-spanning enzymes called palmitoyl-S-acyl-transferases (PAT). One family of PATs is characterised by the presence of a conserved DH(H/Y)C motif, and certain apicomplexan organisms express more than 10 individual S-acyltransferases. They differ in localisation and timing of expression, and therefore are likely to modify distinct protein populations and biological functions.
The global extent of palmitoylation in asexual blood stages of P. falciparum comprises several hundred proteins; they include factors involved in gliding motility, invasion, adhesion, IMC function, signalling, protein transport and proteolytic activity. Of 11 PATs known from rodent malaria parasites five have been detected in blood stage parasites of P. berghei using an HA-tagging approach: they are DHHC3 (IMC), DHHC5 (ER), DHHC7 (rhoptry), DHHC8 (punctate_not_Golgi), and DHHC9 (IMC). Seven DHHC-PATs were found to be redundant for P. berghei blood stage development in a reverse genetic screen: they are DHHC 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11.
Three PATs are under putative translational control in the female P. berghei gametocyte: dhhc2, dhhc3 and dhhc10.

Attempts to disrupt the dhhc2 gene in P. berghei were unsuccessful (see RMgm-1350) indicating an essential role of DHCC2 for blood stage development/multiplication.

Phenotype analyses of the promoter-swap mutant indicate that DHHC2 plays an important role in the development of zygotes into mature ookinetes (see  mutant RMgm-1349, RMgm-1351).

Analyses of the mutant expressing a C-terminal GFP-tagged version of DHHC2 indicates expression in blood stages, gametocytes, ookinetes, (maturing) oocysts and sporozoites.

See also mutant RMgm-1352 that also expresses a C-terminal GFP-tagged version of DHHC2 (without the 3'UTR of the dhhc2 gene) and shows a similar phenotype.

The mutant showed normal development throughout the complete life cycle indicating that the GFP tag did not affect the function of the DHHC2 gene

Additional information
Transcriptional patterns were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using cDNA prepared from blood and mosquito stage parasites; compared to the control transcripts of hsp70 and 18S ribosomal RNA, dhhc2 was found to be highly transcribed in asexual blood stage parasites and in gametocytes, while mRNA levels were absent in mature ookinetes; in oocysts/midgut sporozoites the gene was transcribed anew but absent in mature salivary gland sporozoites. An RNAseq analysis of different P. berghei life cycle stages31 also found high transcript levels in schizonts and gametocytes compared to ring forms and trophozoites.

Other mutants
RMgm-1350: Unsuccessful attempts to disrupt the dhhc2 gene
RMgm-1349, RMgm-1351: 'Promoter swap mutants' in which the promoter of DHHC2 is replaced by an 'asexual blood stage specific’ promoter that is silent in gametocytes.
RMgm-1352: Another mutant expressing a C-terminal GFP-tagged version of DHHC2 (without the 3'UTR of the dhhc2 gene)

  Tagged: Mutant parasite with a tagged gene
Details of the target gene
Gene Model of Rodent Parasite PBANKA_0108300
Gene Model P. falciparum ortholog PF3D7_0609800
Gene productpalmitoyltransferase DHHC2, putative
Gene product: Alternative nameDHHC2
Details of the genetic modification
Name of the tagGFP
Details of taggingC-terminal
Additional remarks: tagging
Commercial source of tag-antibodies
Type of plasmid/construct(Linear) plasmid single cross-over
PlasmoGEM (Sanger) construct/vector usedNo
Modified PlasmoGEM construct/vector usedNo
Plasmid/construct map
Plasmid/construct sequence
Restriction sites to linearize plasmid
Selectable marker used to select the mutant parasitetgdhfr
Promoter of the selectable markerpbdhfr
Selection (positive) procedurepyrimethamine
Selection (negative) procedureNo
Additional remarks genetic modificationThe mutant expresses a C-terminal GFP-tagged version of DHHC2 (the endogenous gene has been tagged with gfp and the transgene is under control of both the 5' and 3'UTR of the dhhc2 gene).
Additional remarks selection procedure
Primer information: Primers used for amplification of the target sequences  Click to view information
Primer information: Primers used for amplification of the target sequences  Click to hide information
Sequence Primer 1
Additional information primer 1
Sequence Primer 2
Additional information primer 2
Sequence Primer 3
Additional information primer 3
Sequence Primer 4
Additional information primer 4
Sequence Primer 5
Additional information primer 5
Sequence Primer 6
Additional information primer 6